In the perfect machine that is the human body, the function of the cardiovascular system is carried out by the heart which pumps in the arteries blood oxygenated by the lungs.
THE veins, in turn, carry oxygen-deprived blood from peripheral areas to the heart.
On the other hand, the capillary vessels, the smallest of our body, are found between the final part of an artery and the initial part of a vein and constitute a tight network which forms the microcirculation which serves to bring oxygen and the substances necessary for their subsistence.

In the legs, the veins can be found on the surface (superficial or epifascial veins) or deep (deep, subfascial veins, in muscular interstices).

THE swallow's nest valves, or venous valves are incorporated into the wall of the venous system to encourage blood to rise towards the heart where it is most needed, where flow is more difficult, and to prevent it from going back down (venous reflux).
In fact, they perform the function of “pumping” venous blood with the muscles responsible for the movement of the lower limbs which activate them.

Circulatory system disorders

Over time and as a result of erroneous daily habits, pregnancy, heredity and hormonal problems, the walls of the veins risk gradually dilating and losing their tone and elasticity. The swallow's nest valve system is compromised. The blood has difficulty returning to the heart and tends to stagnate, particularly in the distal areas of the legs (first the ankles and then the calves).

These are small red or bluish veins that appear on the surface of the skin. They are commonly called “capillaries.” When they expand, they become very visible and form unsightly networks. In most cases, they appear without a specific cause, even when there are no circulatory problems; their appearance can be favored by: family predisposition, pregnancy, “pill”, trauma or overly energetic massages.

Varicose Veins
These are dilations of the veins which tend, over time, to become sinuous. The most common (truncal varicose veins) form near the saphenous vein and collateral veins. Peripheral networks (reticular varicose veins) also form on the back surface of the thighs and legs. Very often, reticular varicose veins are only considered an aesthetic factor, but they can cause real problems such as truncal varicose veins. In their initial phase, they cause a feeling of heaviness, fatigue and tension in the legs and ankles. Then, swelling occurs in the legs (edema) accompanied by nighttime cramps. There may also be hypodermatitis with inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue. If venous insufficiency is not treated, it can become chronic, with the presence of ulcerations.

Venous thrombosis
A clot is present in the veins, often due to slow blood flow. Thrombosis can affect deep veins with the risk of pulmonary embolism. If the thrombus forms in a superficial vein (often varicose), the skin becomes red and hot, the vein is painful, hard, anelastic. In this case, there is normally no risk of pulmonary embolism. The causes of deep vein thrombosis can be different: blood diseases, trauma, prolonged bed rest.

The ulcer
It is a skin lesion. It is not very painful when not infected, but it requires constant care, normally twice a week. Typically, ulcers occur on the inner side of the ankle and are due to impaired venous circulation, sometimes with arterial insufficiency (mixed ulcer). The most remedial treatment is surgical intervention of the saphenous veins (if necessary), combined with medications, physical therapy and elastocompression.

 GLOSSARY of blood circulation

ARTERY : blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the organs.
WINE : blood vessel that carries blood from the periphery of the body to the heart. It is equipped with swallow's nest valves to prevent the reflux of blood.
DEEP VEIN : vein distributed in the middle of the muscles.
SUPERFICIAL VEIN : vein located in the middle of the subcutaneous adipose tissue.
VARIOUS VEIN: permanent dilation of a vein where blood circulates in the opposite direction to the normal direction, from the groin to the foot, with regressive alteration of its walls.
TRUNCULAR VARICES: relating to the trunk to which the vein from which it develops belongs.
VARICECTOMY: surgical excision of a varicose vein.